Get money from Private Equity Funds (PEFs) or Venture Capitalists (VCs).
PEFs and VCs are professionally-managed funds that carry large holdings. They usually make big investments. PEFs and VCs get equity in the company and play a role in its direction and management. These types of investments are difficult to secure -- PEFs and VCs usually invest in companies that offer multimillion payoffs in the future.
Get money from angel investors.
Business angels are investors (individuals or companies) who look for interesting business opportunities. They're interested in the company's substance and profit potential.
Get money from Industry Incentive Schemes.
Many industries offer financial incentive schemes to help new businesses in their industry.
Get money from Donors and Funding Agents.
Get money from public offerings.
When you issue and sell stock to the general public, that's called a public offering. Public offerings can provide huge amounts of capital, but most companies don't "go public."